Synthetic chemists are interested in a variety of information when planning a synthesis. That may include the conditions under which the reaction is to occur, the starting materials and reagents, catalysts, reaction sites, yields, products, by-products, functional group transformations, bonding changes, and mechanisms of the reactions. A REACTION MECHANISM is "a detailed description of a particular reactant to product path, together with information pertaining to intermediates, transition states, stereochemistry, the rate-limiting step, electronic excitation and transfer, and the presence of any loose or intimate electron ion pairs.
Once a compound has been synthesized, a variety of analytical and physical property techniques may be used to verify that the correct substance has been made. One way to search for reaction information is by the name of the reaction. That may be a more general name, such as a substitution reaction, or it may be an eponym from the name of the chemist s who first developed the synthetic method, such as the Curtius Rearrangement Reaction.
Other search systems have developed around codes for various key features in the reaction. One can, of course, search large databases, such as Chemical Abstracts, for reaction information. But in recent years, a number of specialized reaction chemistry databases have come on the scene to assist in a search for reaction information. In addition, there are specialized printed sources that codify the many discoveries in the reaction chemistry area.
Some of the most important sources are discussed in this chapter. The Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry and the Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry are two comprehensive sources that include preparation and formation information.
Houben-Weyl Methods of Organic Chemistry Vol. E 9c, 4th Edition Supplement - Google книги
Of course, for the printed older volumes it is necessary to cope with the text in German, but here is a list of selected German words for reaction chemistry that should assist you. A search of the CrossFire Beilstein Database for "Isatin" shows that the record for the compound had at the time of the search entries for Reaction and 6 entries for Isolation from a Natural Product. It also included 15 Derivatives. One of the references is:. In fact, the preferred way to search for a compound in Beilstein is by structure. Thus, we see that it is possible to find reaction information using the compound name or structure if the record for the compound is among the many millions of compounds currently in the database on Reaxys successor to the CrossFire system , that includes both Beilstein and Gmelin.
When at least two depictions of chemical substances are drawn on the screen and one is selected, the reaction editing component of the CrossFire system appeared, giving the option to define the selected substance as either a Reactant or a Product. It was even possible to graph one or more atoms from the Reactant molecule onto a position in the Product in order to insure that the reaction s found in the search would allow the desired modifications to occur only at specific points on the molecule.
You could also just draw the target structure and assign the role - reactant or product - using the radio buttons in the CrossFireCommander 7 series. At the time of the graphical search, 60 reactions were found in which isatin was a product, and the third of those is shown below. Please note that Beilstein and Gmelin collate reportings of the same reacton with different conditions from different publications in one display for the reaction.
Science of Synthesis and Houben-Weyl
The Gmelin database joined Beilstein in the CrossFire family of searchable databases. From v. Now both databases are integrated into the Reaxys system. Houben-Weyl is one of the most significant and comprehensive reference works ever published in the field of organic synthesis. It contains a mass of useful and insightful synthetic methodology information for the synthetic organic chemist.
The content covers preparative methods for different compound classes and treats them comprehensively and critically. Extensive tables of examples show their scope and limitations.
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Detailed experimental procedures are given for the most important methods. Also, there is an introductory section for each compound class which covers an overview of structure, reactivity, stability, spectroscopic characteristics, nomenclature, natural occurrence and applications.
These include translated table of contents which are text-searchable online, formulae-containing indexes, user guides and posters. The comprehensive description of preparative methods in a consistent style and their critical evaluation by leading experts constitute the philosophy on which Houben—Weyl was founded.
Science of Synthesis
The 4 volumes of the second edition were published between and The third edition, consisting of 4 volumes, was published between and The fourth edition began in and ended in with a total of 67 volumes and 3 index volumes. The series was updated with 89 additional and supplementary volumes, which placed emphasis on the treatment of important classes of compounds and significant preparative methods. From onwards, Houben—Weyl was published in English, thus making it accessible to chemists worldwide. The last volume of Houben—Weyl was published in The total series consisted of volumes and , pages.
Houben-Weyl is organized by class of compound or functional group to be synthesized. Thus, it is structured according to the type of product formed, with only the principal function considered. This is determined by the level of oxidation, substitution or saturation of the carbon atom s.
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In general, higher oxidation levels have priority over lower ones and heterofunctional atoms or groups are classified according to a priority list that puts CX3 at the top and P at the bottom. In Houben-Weyl, transformations of the principal functional group are illustrated by typical examples.
Patents are included in the scope of coverage, and the important preparative methods for all classes of compounds are presented. The Houben-Weyl legacy archive has been available online since and is included as the backfile in the electronic version of Science of Synthesis.
Science of Synthesis is an entirely new edition of Houben-Weyl designed to cater to the broader information needs of the synthetic organic chemist today. It is considered to be the best secondary source of information other than the original journal articles for methods of synthesis of the functional groups covered. It consists of 48 volumes to be published in print and online between and As of mid, 28 of the volumes had been published, with the majority available online.
Chemistry: Reference works
Over renowned organic chemists worldwide have been involved with or are currently working on contributions to the project. The purpose of Science of Synthesis is to critically evaluate all existing methods in organic and organometallic chemistry. The most important molecular transformations for a product class are selected and their scope and limitations summarized. In addition the transformations are further illustrated using proven general or typical methods. Contributions contain background information, a comparison of methods, mechanistic rationale, stereochemistry, experimental procedures, information on scope, limitations and problems, functional group compatibility, and safety and environmental aspects.
The organization of Science of Synthesis is based on the structural unit or functional group for example, a heteroaromatic ring or an enone that is to be constructed. These characteristics have led to many specialist uses in various fields such as inert fluids, polymers, elastomers, surfactants, surface treatment agents, fire extinguishers, biological and medicinal applications, and agriculture.
Houben-Weyl Vol. E10 Organo-Fluorine Compounds is a critical survey of the academic and patent literature, organized in a systematic and structured way and presented in 5 volumes. A comprehensive index is provided in Volume E10c. E10 Organo-Fluorine Compounds is written by leading experts in the field and will prove to be an invaluable tool for the student and researcher alike well into the next millennium.
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To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Heteroatom Analogues of Aldehydes and Ketones Abbreviations. Heteroatom Analogues of Aldehydes and Ketones Introduction. Varinder K.